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तीन सौ रामायणें – ए.के.रामानुजन

पूरी स्क्रीन पर पढ़ने के लिये पीडीएफ़ बॉक्स के कोने में बने चिन्ह का प्रयोग करें

Tin sau ramayanem: pancha udaharan aur anuvad par tin vichar इस थाली में जितनी अंगूठियां हैं, उतने ही राम अब तक हो गये हैं। जब तुम धरती पर लौटोगे तो राम नहीं मिलेंगे। राम का यह अवतार अपनी अवधि पूरी कर चुका है। जब भी राम के किसी अवतार की अवधि पूरी होने वाली होती है, उनकी अंगूठी गिर जाती है। मैं उन्हें उठा कर रख लेता हूं। अब तुम जा सकते हो। हनुमान वापस लौट गये।
यह कथा सामान्यतः यह बताने के लिए सुनायी जाती है कि ऐसे हर राम के लिए एक रामायण है। रामायणों की संख्या और पिछले पच्चीस सौ या उससे भी अधिक सालों से दक्षिण तथा दक्षिण-पूर्व एशिया में उनके प्रभाव का दायरा हैरतनाक है। जितनी भाषाओं में राम कथा पायी जाती है, उनकी फ़ेहरिस्त बताने में ही आप थक जाएंगे
तीन सौ रामायणें: पांच उदाहरण और अनुवाद पर तीन विचार – ए. के. रामानुजन
Tin sau ramayanem: pancha udaharan aur anuvad par tin vichar- A K Ramanujan Three hundred ramayanas in hindi
Translated By Sanjeev Kumar Assistant Professor Deshbandhu College Delhi University
Anuvadak ki or se: ramayana Shabda samskrrita vyakarana ke hisaba se napumsaka limga hai aura himdi ke prachalana ke anusara strilimga| yaham use strilimga mem hi rakha gaya hai| strilimga ke anurupa hi usake rupa-parivartana bhi kiye gaye haim, jaise ‘kitani ramayanem’| yaha thoड़a ajiba laga sakata hai, lekina ramayana ka bahuvachana rupa to aise hi banega| agara yaha pullimga Shabda hota to satha mem karaka chihna na hone ki sthiti mem bahuvachana banate hue ‘kitane khela’ ki taraha ‘kitane ramayana’ kahate; strilimga hai to ‘kitani bhulem’ ki taraha ‘kitani ramayanem’ kahana hoga| isa bahuvachana rupa mem jo thoड़a atapatapana mahasusa hota hai, vaha isa karana ki hama isa Shabda ka bahuvachana mem prayoga karane ke abhyasta nahim rahe haim| para khuda ko abhyasta banana hamari ज़immedari hai, kha़Asa taura se ramanujana ke isa lekha ko paढ़te hue, jisaka mukhya ज़ora hi ramayanom ko bahuvachana mem samajhane para hai|
.a maimne koshisha ki hai ki mula lekha ke vakyom ke ashaya, svara, shaili, krama ityadi se kama-se-kama vichalita hua jaye; vichalana ho to basa utana hi jitana himdi ki prakrriti ke anurupa dhalane ke lie nihayata ज़ruri hai| ham, kahim-kahim apani ora se Shabda ya vakyamsha joड़ dene ki ज़rurata mahasusa hui| vaham maimne usa Shabda ya vakyamsha ko baड़e koshthakom khnnn, mem rakha hai|
.a amgreज़i mem kriyapadom ka alaga se koi sammanasuchaka rupa nahim hai, para himdi mem bahuvachana ke kriyarupom ko ekavachana mem sammanasuchaka kriyarupom ki taraha istemala kiya jata hai| anuvada mem yaha chiज़ kha़asi dik़क़ta paida karati hai| Ama chalana yaha hai ki amgreज़i mem ‘rama goज़’ likha ho, to himdi mem ‘rama jate haim’ ho jata hai aura amgreज़i ka ‘ravana goज़’ himdi mem ‘ravana jata hai’| maimne rama ke satha-satha ravana ke lie bhi sammanasuchaka kriyarupa istemala kiye haim; yahi isa lekha ki mula bhavana ke anurupa hai|
.a eka jagaha bhasha para vichara karane vale darshanika piarsa ki shabdavali ki madada lete hue ramanujana ne anuvada ke tina prakarom ki charcha ki hai; vaham maimne shabdavali ko jyom-ka-tyom rahane diya hai| vastu ko imgita karane ke tarikom ke adhara para piarsa ne samketom (saina) ke tina prakara bataye theh aika.cna, imdeksa aura simbala| ramanujana ne isi ko adhara banate hue aika.cnika, imdeksikala aura simba.clika anuvadom ki charcha ki hai| inake ashaya ve khuda spashta karate chalate haim| isalie bhi inaka himdi pratishabda dhumढ़ne/gaढ़ne ki ज़rurata mahasusa nahim hui| agara maim inhem kramashah ‘pratimavata’, ‘suchaka’ aura ‘pratikatmaka’ kaha bhi deta to kya hasila ho jata! Ulte, pabavadapabapajala ka anuvada karane mem buddhi javaba de jati (de gayi, Apa samajha hi sakate haim)| फ़ilahala, ise himdi mem maimne ‘aika.cnikata’ kaha hai| asha hai, yaha Apako bahuta uchita nahim bhi, to kama-se-kama maज़edara aura sampreshaniya avashya lagega| Article Alochana, anuvad
.a shri ramanujana ne apane amgreज़i lekha mem valmiki ramayana ka jo lamba amsha uddhrrita kiya hai, vaha khuda unaka aura devida Shulamaina ka kiya hua amgreज़i anuvada hai| usaka himdi mem ultha karane ke bajaya maimne himdi mem upalabdha anuvada (jayakrrishna mishra ‘sarvesha’ shastri krrita) ka istemala kiya hai, jisaka havala yathasthana de diya gaya hai| himdi mem upalabdha isa bahuta umda anuvada ki eka hi dik़क़ta hai ki yaha padyanuvada hai, isalie thoड़a mushkila hai| matraem aura tuka milane ki majaburi ho to thoड़e betuke Shabda A hi jate haim| matraem aura tuka milane ki chimta anuvadaka ki prathamikataom ko prabhavita karati hui agara kahim-kahim mula se thoड़a vichalita bhi karava deti ho to koi ashcharya nahim| para yaha dekha kara maim ‘niphikira’ ho gaya ki mula se thoड़a-bahuta vichalana to khuda ramanujana ke amgreज़i anuvada mem bhi hai| mahatvapurna yaha hai ki donom jagaha isa thoड़e-bahuta vichalana se, uddhrrita prasamga ke usa paksha para koi फ़rक़ nahim paड़ta jise samane rakhane ke lie use uddhrrita kiya gaya hai|
.a kamba ramayana ka bhi himdi mem upalabdha acharya ti. Sheshadri ka anuvada mere kama aya hai, lekina use jyom-ka-tyom uddhrrita nahim kiya gaya hai, kyomki donom jagaha pada-samkhyaom ka amtara dekha kara maim ‘niphikira’ nahim raha paya| ramanujana ke anuvada ke satha ukta himdi anuvada ka milana karate hue aisa bhi lagata raha ki ve jina alaga-alaga samskaranom ko adhara bana rahe haim, unamem padom ki krama-samkhya ke stara para hi nahim, kahim-kahim kathya ke stara para bhi फ़rक़ hai; ya sambhava hai, vaha ramanujana aura acharya ti. Sheshadri ke samajhane ka amtara ho| jo bhi ho, maimne kiya yaha ki donom anuvadom ko eka-dusare se bhiड़ate hue, aura acharya sheshadri ke anuvada se kai jagaha pure-pure vakya udhara lete hue, ramanujana dvara uddhrrita padom ke mayane puri taraha se gadya mem likha diye, ज़ahira hai, gadya ko bhi thoड़a kavyatmaka banaye rakhane ki koshisha karate hue|
.a isa lekha ka eka anuvada 2010 mem ‘vak’ patrika mem Chapa chuka hai| jaba maimne anuvada-karya shuru kiya tha, taba yaha bata pata nahim thi| pura hone ke asapasa isaka pata laga to pahale thoड़a aफ़sosa hua ki kha़Amakha़A anuvada kara dala, lekina usa anuvada ko dekha lene ke bada aफ़sosa jata raha|
– samjiva kumaraKitani ramayanem? Tina sau? Tina haज़ara? Kucha ramayanom ke amta mem kabhi-kabhi yaha savala pucha jata hai ki ramayanom ki kula samkhya kya rahi hai? Aura isa savala ka uttara dene vali kahaniyam bhi haim| unamem se eka kahani yom hai|
Eka dina rama apane simhasana para baithe hue the ki unaki amguthi gira gayi| girate hi ज़mina ko chedati hui amguthi usi mem kho ho gayi| rama ke vishvasaniya anuchara, hanumana, unake charanom mem baithe the| rama ne unase kaha, ‘‘meri amguthi kho gayi hai| use dhumढ़ lao|’’
Hanumana to aise haim ki ve kisi bhi Chidra mem ghusa sakate haim, vaha kitana bhi chota kyom na ho! Unamem choti-se-choti vastu se bhi chota aura baड़i-se-baड़i vastu se bhi baड़a bana jane ki kshamata thi| isalie unhomne atilaghu akara dharana kiya aura Cheda mem ghusa gaye|
Chalate gaye, chalate gaye, chalate gaye aura achanaka A gire patalaloka mem| vaham kai striyam thim| khve kolahala karane lagim,, ‘‘are, dekho dekho, Upara se eka chota-sa bamdara gira hai!’’ unhomne hanumana ko pakaड़a aura eka thali meem saja diya| patalaloka mem rahane vale bhutom ke raja ko jivajamtu khana pasamda hai| lihaज़a hanumana shaka-sabज़iyom ke satha Dinara ke taura para usake pasa bheja diye gaye| thali para baithe hanumana pasopesha mem the ki aba kya karem|
Patalaloka mem jaba yaha saba chala raha tha, rama dharati para apane simhasana para virajamana the| maharshi vashishtha aura bhagavana brahma unase milane Aye| unhomne rama se kaha, ‘‘hama Apase ekamta mem varta karana chahate haim| hama nahim chahate ki koi hamari bata sune ya usamem badha dale| kya Apako yaha svikara hai?’’
‘‘svikara hai,’’ rama ne kaha|
Isa para ve bole, ‘‘to phira eka niyama banayem| agara hamari varta ke samaya koi yaham ayega to usaka shirochcheda kara diya jayega|’’
‘‘jaisi apaki ichcha,’’ rama ne kaha|
Aba savala tha ki sabase vishvasaniya dvarapala kauna hoga? Hanumana to amguthi lane gaye hue the| rama lakshmana se ja़yada kisi para bharosa nahim karate the, so unhomne lakshmana ko dvara para khaड़e rahane ko kaha| ‘‘kisi ko amdara na Ane dena,’’ unhem hukma diya gaya|
Lakshmana dvara para khaड़e the jaba maharshi vishvamitra Aye aura kahane lage, ‘‘mujhe rama se shighra milana atyavashka hai| batao, ve kaham haim?’’
Lakshmana ne kaha, ‘‘abhi amdara na jayem| ve kucha aura logom ke satha atyamta mahatvapurna varta kara rahe haim|’’
‘‘aisi kauna-si bata hai jo rama mujhase chupayem?’’ vishvamitra ne kaha, ‘‘mujhe abhi, bilkula abhi amdara jana hai|’’
Lakshmana ne kaha, ‘‘Apako amdara jane dene se pahale mujhe unaki anumati leni hogi|’’
‘‘to jao aura pucho|’’
‘‘maim taba taka amdara nahim ja sakata, jaba taka rama bahara nahim Ate| Apako pratiksha karani hogi|’’
‘‘agara tuma amdara jakara meri upasthiti ki suchana nahim dete jo maim apane abhishapa se puri ayodhya ko bhasmibhuta kara dumga,’’ vishvamitra ne kaha|
Lakshmana ne socha, ‘‘agara abhi amdara jata hum to marumga| para agara nahim jata to ye apane kopa mem pure rajya ko bhasma kara dalemge| samasta praja, sari jivita vastuem jivana se hatha dho baithemgi| behatara hai ki maim hi akela marum|’’
Isalie ve amdara chale gaye|
Rama ne pucha, ‘‘kya bata hai?’’
‘‘maharshi vishvamitra Aye haim|’’
‘‘bheja do|’’
Vishvamitra amdara gaye| ekamta varta taba taka samapta ho chuki thi| brahma aura vashishtha rama se mila kara yaha kahane Aye the ki ‘‘matryaloka mem apaka karya sampanna ho chuka hai| aba ramavatara rupa ko Apako tyaga dena chahie| yaha sharira choड़em aura punah ishvararupa dharana karem|’’ yahi kula mila kara unhem kahana tha|
Aba lakshmana ne rama se kaha, ‘‘bhrata, Apako mera shirochcheda kara dena chahie|’’
Rama ne kaha, ‘‘kyom? Aba hamem koi aura bata nahim karani thi| to maim tumhara shirochcheda kyom karum?’’
Lakshmana ne kaha, ‘‘nahim, Apa aisa nahim kara sakate| Apa mujhe sirpha़ isalie choड़ nahim sakate ki maim apaka bhai hum| yaha rama ke nama para eka kalamka hoga| Apane apani patni ko nahim choड़a| unhem vana mem bheja diya| mujhe bhi damda milana chahie| maim pranatyaga karumga|’’
Lakshmana sheshanaga ke avatara the jina para vishnu Shayana karate haim| unaka bhi samaya pura ho chuka tha| ve sidhe sarayu nadi taka gaye aura usake pravaha mem vilupta ho gaye|
Jaba lakshmana ne apana sharira tyaga diya to rama ne apane sabhi anuyayiyom, vibhishana, sugriva aura dusarom ko bulaya aura apane juड़vam putrom, lava aura kusha, ke rajyabhisheka ki vyavastha ki| isake bada rama bhi sarayu nadi mem pravesha kara gaye|
Isa daurana hanumana patalaloka mem the| unhem amtatah bhutom ke raja ke pasa le jaya gaya| usa samaya ve lagatara rama ka nama duhara rahe the, ‘‘rama, rama, rama …|’’
Bhutom ke raja ne pucha, ‘‘tuma kauna ho?’’
‘‘hanumana|’’
‘‘hanumana? Yaham kyom Aye ho?’’
‘‘shri rama ki amguthi eka Chidra mem gira gayi thi| maim use nikalane aya hum|’’
Raja ne idhara-udhara dekha aura hanumana ko eka thali dikhayi| usa para haज़arom amguthiyam paड़i thim| sabhi rama ki amguthiyam thim| raja hanumana ke pasa vaha thali le aya, use niche rakha kara kaha, ‘‘apane rama ki amguthi utha lo|’’
Sari amguthiyam bilkula eka-si thim| ‘‘maim nahim janata ki vaha kauna-si hai,’’ hanumana sira dulate hue bole|
Bhutom ke raja ne kaha, ‘‘isa thali mem jitani amguthiyam haim, utane hi rama aba taka ho gaye haim| jaba tuma dharati para lautoge to rama nahim milemge| rama ka yaha avatara apani avadhi puri kara chuka hai| jaba bhi rama ke kisi avatara ki avadhi puri hone vali hoti hai, unaki amguthi gira jati hai| maim unhem utha kara rakha leta hum| aba tuma ja sakate ho|’’
Hanumana vapasa lauta gaye|
Yaha katha samanyatah yaha batane ke lie sunayi jati hai ki aise hara rama ke lie eka ramayana hai| ramayanom ki samkhya aura pichale pachchisa sau ya usase bhi adhika salom se dakshina tatha dakshina-purva eshiya mem unake prabhava ka dayara hairatanaka hai| jitani bhashaom mem rama katha payi jati hai, unaki फ़eharista batane mem hi Apa thaka jaemge: annami, bali, bamgali, kambodiyai, chini, gujarati, javai, kannaड़, kashmiri, khotani, laosi, maleshiyai, marathi, oड़iya, prakrrita, samskrrita, samthali, simhali, tamila, telugu, thai, tibbati – pashchimi bhashaom ko choड़ kara yaha hala hai| sadiyom ke saफ़ra ke daurana inamem se kucha bhashaom mem rama katha ke ekadhika vachanom (telimgsa) ne jagaha banayi hai| akele samskrrita mem muख़taliफ़ akhyana-vidhaom (prabamdhakavya, purana ityadi) se juड़e pachchisa ya usase bhi ja़yada vachana upalabdha haim| agara hama natakom, nrritya-natikaom, aura shastriya tatha loka donom paramparaom ke anya vachanom ko bhi joड़ dem, to ramayanom ki samkhya aura bhi baढ़ jati hai| dakshina aura dakshinapurva eshiyai samskrritiyom mem inake satha Shilpa aura nak़क़ashi, mukhauta-natakom, kathaputali natakom aura chaya-natyom ko bhi avashya joड़a jana chahie| ramayana ke eka adhyeta, kamila bulke, ne tina sau vachanom ki ginati ki hai| koi hairata nahim ki chaidahavim sadi mem hi eka kannaड़ kavi kumaravyasa ne mahabharata likhana isalie taya kiya ki usane dharati ko dharana karane vale brahmamdiya sarpa khsheshanaga, ko ramayani kaviyom ke bojha tale artanada karate suna| isa parche mem, jisake lie maim bahusamkhya purvavarti anuvadakom aura vidvanom ka rrini hum, maim yaha dekhana chahumga ki muख़taliफ़ samskrritiyom, bhashaom, aura dharmika paramparaom mem eka katha ke ye saimkaड़om vachana paraspara kaise sambamdhita haim: unamem kya-kya anudita, pratyaropita, pakshamtarita hota hai|Valmiki aura kambana: do ahilyaemज़ahira hai, ye saimkaड़om vachana eka dusare se bhinna haim| maimne prachalita Shabda pathamtara (varज़nsa) ya rupamtara (vairientsa) ki jagaha vachana (telimgsa) kahana pasamda kiya hai to isaka karana hai ki pathamtara aura rupamtara, donom Shabda yaha ashaya bhi deete haim ki eka koi mula ya Adi patha hai khjise paimana bana kara ina bhatakavom ki pahachana ki ja sakati hai,| samanyatah valmiki ki samskrrita ramayana ko vaha darja milata hai, jo ki sabhi ramayanom mem sabase arambhika aura pratishthita hai| lekina jaisa ki hama dekhemge, hamesha valmiki ke akhyana ko hi eka se dusari bhasha mem le jane ka kama nahim hota raha hai|
Shuruata karane se pahale kucha amtarom ko chihnita kara lena upayogi hoga| svayam parampara eka ora ramakatha aura dusari ora valmiki, kambana ya krrittivasa jaise vishishta vyaktiyom dvara rachita pathom ke bicha फ़rक़ karati hai| halamki bada vale kai patha bhi lokapriya stara para ramayana hi kahe jate haim (masalana, kambanaramayanama), lekina kucha hi pathom ke nama mem sachamucha ramayana laga hua hai; iramavatarama, ramacharitamanasa, ramakiyena – isa taraha ke nama diye gaye haim| valmiki dvara kahi gayi ramakatha ke satha unake sambamdha bhi juda-juda haim| katha aura kavya ka yaha paramparika amtara phremcha ke ‘sujeta’ aura ‘resita’, ya amgreज़i ke ‘stori’ aura ‘Diskorsa’ ke amtara se mela khata hai| y




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